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How to measure and analyse the texture of food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and adhesives.

Thursday 12 March 2015

Texture Analysis in Action: the Tortilla/Pastry Burst Rig

Tortilla burst test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe TORTILLA/PASTRY BURST RIG (HDP/TPB) has been developed to perform extension and elasticity measurements on laminated pastry and tortilla dough. 

It can also provide secure and rapid location for many types of thin or sheeted samples. The rig consists of two plates that can be bolted together with the sample sandwiched between. The plates have holes through their centres which expose a circular section of the sample allowing a 1" Spherical probe to be pushed through.

Measurement of the extensional properties of wheat flour tortilla
Measurement of the extensional properties 
of wheat flour tortilla
Click to view application video

It also accommodates a smooth support ring which prevents the breakage of samples at the inside edge of the holding plates. Other applications could include burst testing on packaging films allowing the operator to measure strength, recovery and elasticity.  

Some more information on this fixture

In the test procedure, the sample is held between two plates and the 1" spherical probe is driven through the centre. A typical curve of such a test is shown in the graph; the force and distance to extend the sample are measured and used as an indication of ‘deformation resistance’ and ‘extensibility’, respectively. For instance, if the ball probe can be pushed through the sample for a greater distance before breaking it has a higher extensibility characteristic.

The force required for the deformation of the pastry depends on a number of factors including recipe formulation, temperature of the paste, the quality of the flour and fat, the paste thickness, and hence the weight of the section. The weight and the thickness of the section within the clamp orifice are found to be linearly correlated with the force required for deformation of the paste. A corrugated and highly layered structure also requires a greater force to be deformed than one containing fewer, relative straight layers. 

Research has suggested that greater dough resistance and elasticity enable the dough layers to withstand better the stresses of lamination and baking, and therefore result in greater pastry lift. Doughs which are very tough, for example, as a result of extreme flour strength plus absence of rest periods or adding gluten strengthening substances, can result in loss of lift and considerable pastry shrinkage.     

Papers that use this fixture on a TA.XTplus Texture Analyser have been published, some examples of which are listed below:  ADAMS, K. M., LUKOW, O. M., WESLEY, A. S., DEXTER, J. E., MALCOLMSON, L. J., WATTS, B. M. & TOWNLEY-SMITH, F. (2000). Tortilla evaluation of Canadian hard white spring wheat. Poster presented at 85th AACC Annual Meeting, Kansas City, USA, Nov 5-9, 2000.

ADAMS, J. L. & WANISKA, R. D. (2005). Flour tortilla attributes affected by hot-press conditions. Cereal Foods World, 50 (2), 72-75.

ADAMS, K., LUKOW, O.M., SUCHY, J., DEPAUW, R., HUMPHREYS, G. (2013). Analysis of Kernel Colour, Flour and Whole Wheat End-productQuality of Commercially Grown Canada Hard White Spring Wheat, Snowbird. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5 (1), 187-200.
ALVIOLA, J. N. & WANISKA, R. D. (2008). Determining the Role of Starch in Flour Tortilla Staling Using alpha-Amylase. Cereal Chemistry, 85 (3), 391-396.
ALVIOLA, J. N., WANISKA, R. D. & ROONEY, L. W. (2008). Role of Gluten in Flour Tortilla Staling. Cereal Chemistry, 85 (3), 295-300.

AMBALAMAATIL, S., LUKOW, O. M., HATCHER, D. W., DEXTER, J. E., MALCOLMSON, L. J., & WATTS, B. M. (2002). Milling and quality evaluation of Canadian hard white spring wheats. Cereal Foods World, 47 (7), 319-327. 

BEJOSANO, F. P., ALVIOLA, J. N. & WANISKA, R. D. (2006). Reformulating tortillas with zero trans fat. Cereal Foods World, 51 (2), 66-68.
CORTES-GOMEZ, A., MARTIN-MARTINEZ, E. S., MARTINEZ-BUSTOS, F. & VAZQUEZ-CARRILLO, G. M. (2005). Tortillas of blue maize (Zea mays L.) prepared by a fractionated process of nixtamalisation: analysis using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 66, 273-281.

ERBAS, M., USLU, M. K., DEMIR, M. & CERTEL, M. (2010). Effects of extraction rates of wheat flour on phyllo (yufka) properties at different storage temperatures. Cereal Chemistry, 87 (5), 398-402.

 MAO, Y. & FLORES, R. A. (2001). Mechanical starch damage effects on wheat flour tortilla texture. Cereal Chemistry, 78 (3), 286-293.

MAO, Y., FLORES, R. A. & LOUGHIN, T. M. (2003). Objective texture measurements of commercial wheat flour tortillas. Cereal Chemistry, 79 (5), 648-653.

SAN MARTIN-MARTINEZ, E., JAIME-FONSECA, M. R., MARTINEZ-BUSTOS, F. & MARTINEZ-MONTES, J. L. (2003). Selective nixtamalization of fractions of maize grain (Zea mays L.) and their use in the preparation of instant tortilla flours analyzed using response surface methodology. Cereal Chemistry, 80 (1), 13-19.

SCHILLING, G. R., KADIR, S. A. & TILLEY, K. A. (1999). Tortilla making quality of Kansas hard white wheats. Poster presented at 84th AACC Annual Meeting, Oct 31-Nov 3, Seattle, USA.

SUCHY, J., LUKOW, O. M., ADAMS, K., WESLEY, A. S., DEXTER, J. E., WATTS, B. M., MALCOLMSON, L. & TOWNLEY-SMITH, F. (2000). Advantages of Canadian hard white spring wheat for tortillas. Poster presented at Agri-Food conference, Winnipeg, July 15-19, 2000.

We can design and manufacture probes or fixtures
for the TA.XTplus texture analyser that are bespoke to your sample and its specific measurement.

Once your measurement is performed, our expertise in its graphical interpretation is unparalleled. Not only can we develop the most suitable and accurate method for the testing of your sample, but we can also prepare analysis procedures that obtain the desired parameters from your curve and drop them into a spreadsheet or report designed around your requirements.

For more information on how to measure texture, please visit the Texture Analysis Properties section on our website.

TA.XTplus texture analyser with bloom jar The
TA.XTplus texture analyser is part of a family of texture analysis instruments and equipment from Stable Micro Systems. An extensive portfolio of specialist attachments is available to measure and analyse the textural properties of a huge range of food products. Our technical experts can also custom design instrument fixtures according to individual specifications.

No-one understands texture analysis like we do!

To discuss your specific test requirements click here...

Watch our video about testing of bakery products

Download a published article covering methods for the testing of bakery products

Browse our range of bakery product testing solutions

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