Texture Analysis Professionals Blog

How to measure and analyse the texture of food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and adhesives.

Tuesday, 16 July 2019

Mucosal Delivery: Measuring Product Texture

Mucoadhesion test


Mucoadhesion is the process by which a drug delivery device is designed to stick to a part of the gut or other mucosae (buccal cavity, nasal, rectal and vaginal), thus delivering drug to a precise site in the body for an extended period. 

This gives more effective treatment of some diseases and can also protect drugs from some of the harsh conditions in the body. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are used to treat several conditions in the mouth and have been investigated as treatments for stomach ulcers and cancer. The majority of infections affecting man and animals take place or start in mucous membranes. The ability to retain pharmacologically-active agents for extended periods of time on any mucosal epithelium, including those of the nose, mouth, rectum or vagina confers several potential therapeutic advantages.

Thursday, 20 June 2019

Transdermal Delivery: Measuring Product Texture

Applying transdermal patchTRANSDERMAL DELIVERY

Transdermal drug delivery as a route for systemic drug administration is currently one of the advancing areas in drug development research.

This is particularly true for the delivery of such drugs as opiate painkillers, birth control, nitroglycerin for the prophylaxis of angina, nicotine for smoking cessation therapy, testosterone for the correction of male hypogonadism. 

The skin route for systemic drug delivery is especially attractive to formulators, as this integument is the most readily accessible organ of the body. Clinicians are increasingly recognising the advantages of controlled continuous intravenous infusion of drugs, such as the avoidance of hepatic metabolism and the maintenance of a constant therapeutic level in the body, that can be obtained by the use of the skin as a portal of drug delivery, without the risks and costs of intravenous therapy.

Developing dermal, transdermal and mucoadhesive delivery systems

Applying cream to handINTRODUCTION

Developments in transdermal, dermal and mucoadhesive drug delivery methods are paving the way to the future of systemic drug administration.

As skin is both the largest and most accessible organ in a human body, pharmaceutical manufacturers are keen to take advantage of it as a drug delivery platform.
The transdermal route helps to reduce the risks and costs of intravenous therapy that can be both traumatic and intrusive.

Transdermal controlled release (CR) systems usually combine a therapeutic component with an adhesive formulation that ensures a continuous delivery of the active ingredient through unbroken skin at a constant absorption rate. Skin adhesion and drug compatibility determine the efficacy of transdermal applications.

Parenteral Texture Control: Rectal Delivery Products


Although administration via the peroral route is the most commonly targeted goal of new drug and dosage form research and development, oral administration is not always feasible or desirable.

The potential for oral dosage form development is severely limited for active agents that are poorly absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and unstable to proteolytic enzymes. Some agents cause local stomach or upper GI irritation or require doses in excess of 500mg. 

Additionally, treatment of some diseases is best achieved by direct administration near the affected area, particularly with diseases involving anorectal tissues. Although oral administration can be used for drugs targeted for some of these diseased tissues, exposure of the entire body compartment to the administered drug is inefficient and can lead to undesired adverse effects.

Tuesday, 18 June 2019

Parenteral Texture Control: Vaginal Delivery Products


The vaginal route of administration offers a promising option for local and systemic delivery of drugs.

Suppositories, creams, gels and tablets are commonly used vaginal drug delivery systems. These conventional vaginal formulations, however, are associated with limitations of poor retention, leakage, and messiness, thereby causing inconvenience to users. 

To overcome these limitations, formulations that adhere to the vaginal mucosa for a sufficient period of time need to be developed. Bioadhesion and retention are desirable characteristics of a vaginal formulation to achieve desired efficacy. These properties can be built in during formulation development by the use of bioadhesive polymers and tested by similar methods to those already discussed for bioadhesion. The limitations have also necessitated the development of other novel drug delivery systems.

Tuesday, 11 June 2019

Parenteral Texture Control: Ocular Delivery Products

Inserting a contact lensOCULAR DELIVERY

Treatment of some diseases is best achieved by direct administration near the affected area, particularly with diseases involving ophthalmic, optic, dermal, oral cavity, and anorectal tissues.

Ocular drug delivery is an interesting and challenging opportunity for pharmaceutical development. The eye is protected by a series of complex defense mechanisms, which usually result in poor bioavailability of drugs administered via the ocular route. These include tear production and the blinking reflex in addition to short residence time and reduced drug permeability.

Tuesday, 4 June 2019

Parenteral Texture Control: Parenteral Delivery Products

Hip implant


Developments in injectable depots and implants are driven by a desire to decrease the necessity for frequent medication.

Incorporating polymer technology for slow, long-term release, this route is best utilised for the treatment of chronic conditions, such as heart disease and pain management. Hip or knee cap replacements are susceptible to infection following surgery.

A preventative approach could be for the doctor to leave behind an implant that could deliver an anti-infective agent and disintegrate with time. These devices give localised, high-concentration delivery, and by tuning the ratio of drug load to polymer the required release rate can be optimised, over two days or two months.

Tuesday, 28 May 2019

Parenteral Texture Control: Pulmonary Delivery Products


Pulmonary delivery has been used for years to treat respiratory diseases by delivering drugs locally to the lung. 

However, the latest advances are seeing drugs being delivered via this route for systemic circulation. The delivery of drugs to the bloodstream via the lungs is an attractive hypothesis, offering a non-invasive and rapid-onset alternative to injections.

Inhalation Drug Delivery via Metered-dose Inhalers

Aerosol route of administration targets drugs directly to the lungs and offers advantages of bypassing the first pass elimination, reducing the dosage frequency and minimising the 
extent of adverse drug reactions.