How to measure and analyse the texture of food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and adhesives.

Thursday, 12 February 2015

Texture Analysis in action: the Back Extrusion Rig

Back extrusion test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe BACK EXTRUSION RIG (A/BE) is comprised of a sample container which is centrally located beneath a disc plunger. 

The disc plunger performs a compression test which extrudes the product up and around the edge of the disc. 

This test measures the consistency of viscous products, such as yoghurt, creams and sauces, processed fruit and vegetables, or moisturising creams, shampoo and hair gel products.

Comparison of consistencies of full-fat and low-fat mayonnaise when subjected to backward extrusion
Comparison of consistencies of full-fat and 
low-fat mayonnaise when subjected to 
backward extrusion
Click to view application video
The principle is illustrated in this test on a treacle sample in its container.
Results relate to measurements of viscosity. 

Three discs of different diameters are provided. Usage depends on the type of product to be tested and whether it contains any particulates such as found in soups or jams.

Using the back extrusion principle (i.e. using a disc on the probe adapter) the consistency can also be determined directly in containers out of the running production. This rules out pre-stressing of the material caused by transfilling; this cannot usually be avoided when using the Forward Extrusion cell.

Viscous liquids containing particulates can also be tested by selection of a smaller extrusion disc (i.e. creating a larger annular gap). Products containing particulates cannot be tested using the Forward Extrusion Rig as erroneous data is produced when the particulates attempt to extrude through the annulus.

When testing a product of thick consistency, a smaller diameter disc should be chosen to allow the product to freely flow between the disc and wall of the vessel to limit 'wall effects'. If a larger disc is chosen, a larger force will be measured due to the restriction of flow of the product.

The extrusion test should avoid going close to the base of the vessel, otherwise base effects may be introduced (i.e. the proximity of the disc to the base of the vessel may affect the force measurement). As a guide, the test should not proceed beyond 75% of the vessel height (or should not be testing within 10mm of the vessel base).

Many papers that use this fixture on a TA.XTplus Texture Analyser have been published, as listed below: 

AFOAKWA, E. O., PATERSON, A., FOWLER, M. & VIEIRA, J. (2009). Microstructure and mechanical properties related to particle size distribution and composition in dark chocolate. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 44, 111-119.

AGUDELO, A., VARELA, P., SANZ, T. & FISZMAN, S. M. (2014). Native tapioca starch as a potential thickener for fruit fillings. Evaluation of mixed models containing low-methoxyl pectin. Food Hydrocolloids, 35, 297-304.

ALVAREZ, M., FERNANDES, C., OLIVARES, M., JIMENEZ, M. & CANET, W. (2011). Sensory and texture properties of mashed potato incorporated with inulin and olive oil blends. International Journal of Food Properties, 16 (8), 1839-1859.

ALVAREZ, M., FERNANDEZ, C., OLIVARES, M. & CANET W. (2012). Comparative characterization of dietary fibre-enriched frozen/thawed mashed potatoes. International Journal of Food, 15 (5), 1022-1041.

AUTIO, K., KUUVA, T., ROININEN, K., & LAHTEENMAKI, L. (2003). Rheological properties, microstructure and sensory perception of high-amylose starch-pectin mixed gels. Journal of Texture Studies, 33, 473-486.

BELTRAN, B., ANZALDUA-MORALES, A., ORTEGA, E., QUINTERO, A., MORALES, J., MEDRANO, H. & TALAMAS, R. (1996). Development of an apple pie filling preserved by two different methods. IFT Conference Paper, New Orleans, 1996.

BRENNAN, C. S. & TUDORICA, C. M. (2008). Carbohydrate-based fat replacers in the modification of the rheological, textural and sensory quality of yoghurt: comparative study of the utilisation of barley beta-glucan, guar gum and inulin. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 43, 824-833.

CARBONELL-BARRACHINA, A. A., ZARAGOZA, M. P., LARIO, Y., ARACIL, P. & BURLO, F. (2003). Development of a high sensory quality garlic paste. Journal of Food Science, 68 (7), 2351-2355.

CARVALHO, I.S.T., GRANFELDT, Y., ELIASSON, A.C., DEJMEK, P. (2013). Predictability of the Consistency of Porridges Using Mixtures of Different Flours. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 4, 933-939.

CEVOLI, C., BALESTRA, F., RAGNI, L. & FABBRI, A. (2013). Rheological characterisation of selected food hydrocolloids by traditional and simplified techniques. Food Hydrocolloids, 33 (1), 142-150.

DE VUYST, L., ZAMFIR, M., MOZZI, F., ADRIANY, T., MARSHALL, V., DEGEEST, B. & VANINGELGEM, F. (2003). Exopolysaccharide-producing Streptococcus thermophilus strains as functional starter cultures in the production of fermented milks. International Dairy Journal, 13, 707-717.

EMADZADEH, B., RAZAVI, S., & SCHLEINING, G. (2013). Dynamic rheological and textural characteristics of low-calorie pistachio butter. International Journal of Food Properties, 16 (3), 512-526.

FRIIS, A., NORSKER, M. & BREGNHOJ, D. (1998). Comparison of rheological measurements for characterisation of pectin gels. Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Sweden, June 1998.

HEINZERLING, C. I., SMIT, G. & DRANSFIELD, E. (2008). Modelling oral conditions and thickness perception of a starch product. International Dairy Journal, 18, 867-873.

KERDSUP, P., NAKNEAN, P., (2013). Effect of sorbitol substitution on physical, chemical and sensory properties of low-sugar mango jam. 4th International Science, Social Science, Engineering and Energy Conference 2012, Proceeding - Science and Engineering, 12–18.

KONSTANCE, R. P., ONWULATA, C. I., SMITH, P. W., LU, D., TUNICK, M. H., STRANGE, E. D. & HOLSINGER, V. H. (1998). Nutrient-based corn and soy products by twin-screw extrusion. Journal of Food Science, 63 (5), 864-868.

KUMAR, P. & MISHRA, H. N. (2003). Textural characteristics of mango soymilk fortified yoghurt and its optimization. Poster presented at 3rd International Symposium on Food Rheology and Structure, Switzerland, Feb 2003.

LEELAYUTHSOONTORN, P. & THIPAYARAT, A. (2006). Textural and morphological changes of Jasmine rice under various elevated cooking conditions. Food Chemistry, 96 (4), 606-613.

MUZANILA, Y. C., BRENNAN, J. G., KING, R. D. & MACDOUGALL, D. B. (2001). Texture of reconstituted cassava flakes. Tropical Science, 41 (2), 55-59.

NASARUDDIN, F., CHIN, N. & YUSOF, Y. (2012). Effect of processing on instrumental textural properties of traditional dodol using back extrusion. International Journal of Food Properties, 15 (3), 495-506.

PATRIGNANI, F., LANCIOTTI, R., MATHARA, J. M., GUERZONI, M. E. & HOLZAPFEL, W. H. (2006). Potential of functional strains, isolated from traditional Maasai milk, as starters for the production of fermented milks. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 107 (1), 1-11.

PEREIRA, R. B., SINGH, H., MUNRO, P. A., & LUCKMAN, M. S. (2003). Sensory and instrumental textural characteristics of acid milk gels. International Dairy Journal, 13, 655-667.

PEREIRA, R., MATIA-MERINO, L., JONES, V. & SINGH, H. (2006). Influence of fat on the perceived texture of set acid milk gels: a sensory perspective. Food Hydrocolloids, 20 (2), 305-313.

PIAZZA, L., GIGLI, J., ROJAS, C., BALLABIO, D., TODESCHINI, R. & TRIPALDI, P. (2009). Dairy cream response in instrumental texture evaluation processed by multivariate analysis. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory System, 96 (2), 258-263.

PICO, L., ANZALDUA-MORALES, A., ORTEGA, E., QUINTERO, A. & GASSON, J. (1995). Texture of dehydrated pre-cooked beans. IFT Conference Paper, Anaheim (1995).

ROBBERS, M., SINGH, R. P. & CUNHA, L. M. (1997). Osmotic-convective dehydrofreezing process for drying kiwifruit. Journal of Food Science, 62 (5), 1039-1042, 1047.

SCIARINI, L. S., RIBOTTA, P. D., LEON, A. E. & PEREZ, G. T. (2010). Effect of hydrocolloids on gluten-free batter properties and bread quality. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 45, 2306-2312.

SEFA-DEDEH, S., CORNELIUS, B., & AFOAKWA, E. O. (2003). Effect of fermentation on the quality characteristics of nixtamalized corn. Food Research International, 36, 57-64.

SESMERO, R. QUESADA, M. A. & MERCADO, J. A. (2006). Antisense inhibition of pectase lyase gene expression in strawberry fruit: Characteristics of fruits processed in jam. Journal of Food Engineering, In Press.

SHUKLA, B. D. & SINGH, S. P. (2006). Osmo-convective drying of cauliflower, mushroom and greenpea. Journal of Food Engineering, In Press.

SORIA, A. C., GONZALEZ, M., DE LORENZO, C., MARTINEZ-CASTRO, I. & SANZ, J. (2004). Characterization or artisanal honeys from Madrid (Central Spain) on the basis of their melissopalynological, physicochemical and volatile composition data. Food Chemistry, 85, 121-130.

SUROWKA, K., ZMUDZINSKI, D. & SUROWKA, J. (2003). Enzymic modification of extruded soy protein concentrates as a method of obtaining new functional food components. Trends in Food Science and Technology, In Press.

SUUTARINEN, J., HONKAPAA, K., HEINIO, R.-L., AUTIO, K., MUSTRANTA, A., KARPPINEN, S., KIUTAMO, T., LIUKKONEN-LILJA, & MOKKILA, M. (2003). Effects of calcium chloride-based prefreezing treatments on the quality factors of strawberry jams. Journal of Food Science, 67 (2), 884-894.

TAMBURIC, S., WILLIAMS, S., GODME, N. & FAZAL, S. (2010). Combining instrumental and sensory evaluation to assess application characteristics of skincare emulsions. Poster presented at World Congress of Emulsions, Lyon, 2010.

TOTOSAUS, A., GUERRERO, I. & MONTEJANO, J. G. (2005). Effect of added salt on textural properties of heat-induced gels made from gum-protein mixtures. Journal of Texture Studies, 36, 78-92.

UTOMO, J. S., CHE MAN, Y. B., RAHMAN, R. A. & SAID SAAD, M. (2008). The effect of shape, blanching methods and flour on characteristics of restructured sweetpotato stick. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 43, 1896-1900.

VESTERINEN, E., SUORTTI, T. & AUTIO, K. (2001). Effects of preparation temperature on gelation properties and molecular structure of high-amylose maize starch. Cereal Chemistry, 78 (4), 442-446.

VIDALES, S.L., CASTRO, M.A. & ALZMORA, S. M. (1998). The structure-texture relationship of blanched and glucose-impregnated strawberries. Food Science and Technology International, 4, 169-178.

WISCHMANN, B, AHMT, T, BANDSHOLM, O, BLENNOW, A, YOUNG, N, JEPPESEN, L. THOMSEN, L. (2007). Testing properties of potato starch from different scales of isolations - A ringtest. Journal of Food Engineering, 79 (3), 970-978.

WORRASINCHAI, S., SUPHANTHARIKA, M., PINJAI, S. & JAMNONG, P. (2006). Beta-glucan prepared from spent brewer's yeast as a fat replacer in mayonnaise. Food Hydrocolloids, 20, 68-78.

YADAV, D. N., SINGH, K. K., BHOWMIK, S. N. & PATIL, R. T. (2010). Development of peanut milk-based fermented curd. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 45, 2650-2658.

We can design and manufacture probes or fixtures for the TA.XTplus texture analyser that are bespoke to your sample and its specific measurement.

Once your measurement is performed, our expertise in its graphical interpretation is unparalleled. Not only can we develop the most suitable and accurate method for the testing of your sample, but we can also prepare analysis procedures that obtain the desired parameters from your curve and drop them into a spreadsheet or report designed around your requirements.

For more information on how to measure texture, please visit the Texture Analysis Properties section on our website.

TA.XTplus texture analyser with bloom jar The
TA.XTplus texture analyser is part of a family of texture analysis instruments and equipment from Stable Micro Systems. An extensive portfolio of specialist attachments is available to measure and analyse the textural properties of a huge range of food products. Our technical experts can also custom design instrument fixtures according to individual specifications.

No-one understands texture analysis like we do!

To discuss your specific test requirements click here...

Watch our video about texture analysis Replicating Consumer Preferences
 Texture Analysis applications

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