How to measure and analyse the texture of food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and adhesives.

Tuesday, 27 May 2014

The latest research work in the field of Crispness Measurement

Setting up the Acoustic Envelope Detector on a TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe Acoustic Envelope Detector is now an established tool for the measurement of the acoustic energy release during a physical test. 

Attached to the TA.XTplus Texture Analyser, it is being employed to advance the investigation into
crispy products and assess the effect of formulation change, improved design and suitability for market.

If you haven’t seen this system in action you may wish to watch an overview of the types of products it is being used to test.

Recently Zeelandia announced their use of the Acoustic Envelope Detector which we featured in a previous blog post: Measuring the noise of bread roll crusts

Acoustic Envelope Detector in use for a cutting test on a chocolate snack barIf you wish to read about the ways in which other researchers have been employing their Acoustic Envelope Detector, please refer to the following citations:

CHEN, J., KARLSSON, C. & POVEY, M. (2005). Acoustic envelope detector for crispness assessment of biscuits. Journal of Texture Studies, 36, 139-156.

COROLLARO, M.L., ENDRIZZI, I., APREA, E., DEMATTE, M.L., COSTA, F., BIASIOLI, F., GRAPPADELLI, L.C., GASPERI, F. (2013). Thinning via shading: the sensory quality of apples grown by a new technique. Pangborn 2013: 10th Pangborn Sensory Science Symposium, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 11-15 August 2013. 

HIRTE, A., HAMER, R. J., MEINDERS, M. B. J. & PRIMO-MARTIN, C. (2010). Permeability of crust is key to crispness retention. Journal of Cereal Science, 1-7.

JAKUBCZYK, E & GONDEK, E.(2011). The application of acoustic emission to measure texture of food foams. Presented at ICE 11, Greece, May 22-26.

LONGHI, S., HAMBLIN, M.T., TRAINOTTI, L., PEACE, C.P., VELASCO, R., COSTA,F. (2013). A candidate gene based approach validates Md-PG1 as the main responsible for a QTL impacting fruit texture in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh). BMC Plant Biology 13(37).

PIAZZA, L., GIGLI, J. & BALLABIO, D. (2007). On the application of chemometrics for the study of acoustic-mechanical properties of crispy bakery products. Chemometrics and intelligent laboratory systems, 86 (1), 52-59.

PIAZZA, L., GIGLI, J. & BENEDETTI, S. (2008). Study of structure and flavour release relationships in low moisture bakery products by means of the acoustic-mechanical combined technique and the electronic nose. Journal of Cereal Science, 48 (2), 413-419. 

SAELEAW, M. & SCHLEINING, G. (2010). Effect of blending cassava starch, rice, waxy rice and wheat flour on physico-chemical properties of flour mixtures and mechanical and sound emission properties of cassava crackers. Journal of Food Engineering, 100 (1), 12-24.

SAELEAW, M., DURRSCHMID, K. & SCHLEINING, G. (2012). The effect of extrusion conditions on mechanical-sound and sensory evaluation of rye expanded snack. Journal of Food Engineering, 110 (4), 532-540.

SALVADOR, A., VARELA, P., SANZ, T. & FISZMAN, S. M. (2009). Understanding potato chips crispy texture by simultaneous fracture and acoustic measurements, and sensory analysis. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 42, 763-767.

TANIWAKI, M. & KOHYAMA, K. (2012). Mechanical and acoustic evaluation of potato chip crispness using versatile texture analyser. Journal of Food Engineering, 112 (4), 268-273.

VAN DER BILT, A., POCZTARUK, R. D. L. & ABBINK, H. (2010). Skull vibration during chewing of crispy food. Journal of Texture Studies, 41, 774-788.

VARELA, P., SALVADOR, A. & FISZMAN, S. M. (2008). Methodological developments in crispness assessment: Effects of cooking method on the crispness of crusted foods. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 41 (7), 1252-1259.

VARELA, P. SALVADOR, A. & FISZMAN, S. (2009). On the assessment of fracture in brittle foods II. Biting or chewing? Food Research International, 42 (10), 1468-1474.

TA.XTplus texture analyser with bloom jar The acoustic system, which utilises a microphone and pre-amplifier from Danish sound and vibration experts Brüel & Kjær, has high sensitivity to the frequencies emitted by brittle products but has low sensitivity to mechanical noise emitted by the Texture Analyser.

The system contains all the necessary components for connection to a
TA.XTplus texture analyser, which will generate synchronised force, and sound profiles for individual tests to provide the "4th dimension in texture analysis".

The TA.XTplus texture analyser is part of a family of texture analysis instruments and equipment from Stable Micro Systems. An extensive portfolio of specialist attachments is available to measure and analyse the textural properties of a huge range of food products. Our technical experts can also custom design instrument fixtures according to individual specifications.

Acoustic testing video Download a published article on methods measuring sound of brittle products Snack product testing solutions

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